Florence Bascom (1862–1945) was a true pioneer in geoscience: her PhD work furthered our understanding of the origins and formation of the Appalachian Mountains, and she geologically mapped a good portion of the United States. She was both a professional geologist, and an academic and teacher. Amongst many other firsts, Bascom was the first woman to be hired by the US Geological Service in 1896 and the first woman to present a paper at the Geological Society of Washington in 1901. She was also Associate Editor of The American Geologist journal from 1896-1905, and the first female officer of the Geological Society of America (elected as Vice President in 1930).
Her work was so respected by her colleagues that in 1906 the first edition of the not-entirely-accurately named American Men of Science rated her among the top one hundred leading geologists in the USA. The establishment clearly wasn’t ready for Florence Bascom, nor her trowelblazing legacy: later editions of Men of Science included many of Bascom’s female students, and yet it stuck with that title until 1971!